The increased use of FO cabling is making broad band infrastructure a reality in business and residential districts. This cabling addresses the demand from customers for ever more band width with efficient networks while protecting the investment to the greatest possible extent. Network operators almost always take a two-prong approach to connection networks. Cable network operators use hybrid technologies (glass/coaxial) just as traditional fixed network operators do (glass/copper). The FO cables are run as close to the building as possible up to a local exchange. From that point onward, the existing copper cable connection network continues to be used. The shorter this section is, the higher the attainable transmission rates will be. FTTS, Fiber To The Street (to a place right in front of the building), is particularly promising. It is also known as Giga-DSL. Instead of a central office, a digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM) is installed in a manhole near the building (200 meters away) as an active local exchange. The International Telecommunication Union, Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is working on the associated standard known as G.fast.
2. Fiber To The Home (FTTH)
New transmission processes may make much fuller use of existing copper or coaxial connection conductors. Nonetheless, speed increases are subject to physical limitations. FO connection networks offer substantially higher quality and reliability. That is why FTTH (Fiber To The Home) is being implemented so broadly. An FO network is a long-term investment in any case. Its service life is at least 30 years but tends to be 40 years in actual practice. That means FO connection networks will form the backbone of communications for network operators for decades to come. As long-term investments they need careful planning and top quality implementation with high-end components. Studies have shown that only 21 percent of the disruptions at level 1 occur outside the actual cabling. The remaining 79 percent are attributable to factors within the cabling, e.g. hardware or system faults (44 percent) or human error (32%). That is why poorly manufactured FTTH components or incorrectly laid FO cabling will have noticeable cost consequences in system operation (more frequent failures, costly and elaborate troubleshooting, etc.).